Trends & Applications DENTALTRIBUNE Middle East & Africa Edition Prosthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that involves the restoration of damaged teeth andthereplacementofmissing teethwithartificialsubstitutes. The prosthodontist is the ex- pert in improving the patient’s smile while restoring function. Prosthodontists receive 3 years of full-time formal education after dental school to become specialists. The prosthodontist uses a variety of materials and methods when restoring and replacing teeth. Porcelain laminate ve- neers Discoloredteethorteethwith minor structural defects can be restored with porcelain laminate veneers. Veneers are very thin porcelain restorations that are bonded to the teeth. Well made and well placed veneers can be strikingly beautiful (Fig 1). Porcelain inlays and onlays Posterior teeth with large cavities or old defective restora- tions can be restored with porce- lain inlays (restorations that fit within the tooth structure) or on- lays (restorations that cover one or more cusps of the teeth). These restorations can be hand- made by a technician or milled with computer-assisted de- sign/computer assisted machin- ing (CAD/CAM) technology. The inlay or onlay is then bonded to the tooth structure (Fig. 2). Crowns and bridges There are many systems for making crowns and bridges. A very popular system uses zirco- nia as a substructure. Zirconia is a very hard and strong ceramic materialthatisresistanttocrack- ing. The substructure is milled with the use of CAD/CAM tech- nology, and a technician places the esthetic veneering porcelain over the zirconia substructure to develop the final esthetic result (Figs. 3 & 4). All-ceramic crowns and bridges are not as strong as porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. Dental implants Dental implants can be placed in the jaw bone to support artificial teeth. Once the bone heals around the implant (2-4 months), an abutment is at- tached to the implant and a crowniscementedovertheabut- ment. These implant-supported crowns can be indistinguishable from natural teeth (Fig. 5). Implants can also be used to retain and support removable dentures. The number of im- plants required depends on the desired support and retention (Figs. 6) Summary Prosthodontics is a complex specialty that requires extensive training and education after graduation from dental school. The prosthodontist can rehabili- tate a patient’s mouth to enhance esthetics and function by using various materials and tech- niques. Modern approaches to prosthodontics include CAD/CAM technology and den- tal implants. At Boston Univer- sity we provide state-of-the-art prosthodontic care, including porcelain laminate veneers, porcelain inlays and onlays, all- ceramic crowns and bridges, porcelain-fused-to metal crowns and bridges, and prostheses sup- portedandretainedbydentalim- plants. 8 NEW Upgrade available now: > Ceramill Artex® (virtual articulator) > Ceramill M-Plant abutment tool d-lab24.com $ COMP ELLING R OI IN VESTMENT CASE AD PROSTHODONTICS Dr. Morgano received his bachelor’s de- gree in Biology from Merrimack College andhisDMDdegreefromTuftsUniversity School of Dental Medicine in Boston and received his specialty certificate in prosthodontics from the Hines Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the US. In addi- tion, he is a diplomat of the American Board of Prosthodontics. Dr. Morgano is Professor of Restorative Sciences and Biomaterials at Boston Uni- versity Goldman School of Dental Medi- cine in Boston, and has served as Director of the Division of Postdoctoral Prostho- dontics since 1996. He is on a leave of ab- sence from the Goldman School of Dental Medicine to serve as the Chief Academic Officer/Chief Executive Officer and Director of the Postdoc- toral Program in Prosthodontics at Boston University Institute of Dental Research & Education—Dubai. You may contact him at: steven.morgano@budubai.ae About the author Fig 1 A, Discolored teeth with structural defects. Fig. 1 B, Finished result. Note that the spaces between the teeth have been closed with the veneers. Fig. 2 B, Molar with large cavity prepared for porcelain inlay. Fig. 2 B, Bonded porcelain inlay.

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